عنوان مقاله [English]
God created man in the most beautiful form, with the healthiest body and the best form; the Holy Qur'an describes human creation with the word ‘Ahsan’ and according to this meaning, there is no defect in his creation. Thus, it is necessary for him to take care of himself and maintain his health, but during his life, he faces diseases and calamities that can be a test for man, an awakening from negligence or atonement for sins. This study, with reference to verses and narrations, while stating the origin and causes of diseases, and treatment of diseasesinvestigates the educational role of diseases for human beings according to the Qur'an. It aims to recognize the educational view of the Quran on diseases, especially with regard to emerging phenomena and diseases such as the prevalence of Coronavirus. The study has used a descriptive-analytical method using . It seeks to answer the following question: Do the Qur'an and hadiths have a view on emerging phenomena such as the corona?
The Place of Man in the Qur'an and its Educational Role
One of the important features of the Qur'an is its educational character as many of its verses are in the position of educating human beings. By contemplating the word of education and the verses that depict the image of a grown man, one can see a human being who has reached the peak of perfection (Shams: 9-10) (Al-Aali: 14) (Fatir: 18). Another reason is that the mission of the prophets is the purification of the self(Al-Imran: 164).
Causes and Diseases according to the Qur'an:
1. Tests: Diseases can be a kind of test for humans. The testing of servants is one of the traditions of God Almighty. “We will certainly test you all with something of fear, hunger, and loss of property, souls, and fruits and give good tidings to those who persevere” (Baqarah: 155). This divine tradition is never closed (Tabatabaei, 2014). The spread of the coronavirus at this rate of infection and death of people could be considered one of the tests of all human beings. It has expenses, it has death, it also needs patience. As such, it could be considered as one of the examples of this noble verse.
2. Awakening from negligence: Some diseases are a factor in getting back a person to the right path and awakening from negligence. Negligence is always one of the causes of falling and one of the obstacles to human development towards happiness and education. It could be very constructive and instructive. God Almighty says: “O man! What has deceived you about your generous Lord?” (Infetar: 6) or says: “We have certainly sent [apostles] to nations before you, then We seized them with stress and distress so that they might entreat [Us]”, (Anaam: 42). There are subtle references in the words of the Innocents.
3. Atonement for sins: Sometimes God Almighty afflicts people with hard or easy accidents, calamities, and diseases in order to eliminate the effects of sins, to wash away part of the sin of sinners in the world before death, by his grace and mercy, so that they will not be afflicted with painful torments in the Hereafter.
Causes of Diseases in the Qur'an
1. Nature: According to the system of cause and effect that governs the universe, if someone does not provide the necessary conditions to face natural disasters and diseases, he becomes vulnerable and subject to accidents and diseases. As the Qur'an says: “Indeed, Allah does not wrong people in the least; rather, it is people who wrong themselves” (Younus: 44).
2. Satan: In the Holy Qur'an, God attributes some ills and diseases to Satan )such as the cause of problems for Prophet Ayyub (AS)(. Because Satan caused difficulties for him, hardship is attributed to him.
Here, the origin of the disease can be attributed to the devil because it tempts and causes his pressure, and it can also be attributed to God. The main cause of such calamities for Ayyub and giving permission to the devil does not invalidate natural causes. Natural causes are along with the causes, not across them (Tabatabaei, 1992, p. 574).
3. Man: Some verses of the Holy Qur'an attribute the origin of sins and diseases to man : “whatever ill befalls you is from yourself’’ (Nessa: 79).
4. God: The Holy Qur'an attributes the creation of everything (good and evil) to God: “Say, ‘All is from Allah” (Nessa: 78).
Based on the above, all the phenomena of the universe can be attributed to different causes;; at the same time, the cause could be attributed to God Almighty.
The results of the present study are as follows:
1. The Holy Qur'an, in general, introduces physical diseases, including what they are called and when they afflict human beings and provides verses in terms of their origin and philosophy of emergence as well as ways to cure them.
2. The Holy Qur'an considers diseases as one of the factors in human education and considers how to deal with diseases and their role in human education.
3. The Holy Qur'an and hadiths have not just limited the illness to physical ones but have also paid attention to psychological aspects.
4. The Holy Qur'an, in accordance with the disease, has given material and spiritual advice for the prevention and treatment making the divine duties lighter for the afflicted
5. Physical illness can have educational and spiritual effects for the patient. Iit is looked at as a type of divine test, it can pave the way for awakening from the neglect and atonement of his sins.. This attitude could bring relief and peace of mind for patients.