عنوان مقاله [English]
Buddhism is one of the world's great religions intending to bring about a moral, ideal, and thoughtful living. Buddhism changed the conception of faith by emphasizing meditation and self-knowledge instead of belief and ritualism. Buddhist texts speak of faith (saddha) and confidence in the Buddha as a teacher, which is a necessary condition for the first step on the path. This faith is not, however, regarded as a sufficient condition for salvation, but each person, following Buddha, should seek the truth and experience Liberation through his own personal effort and intelligence; everyone can achieve enlightenment by realizing one’s own Buddha-nature. The fact that in Buddhism preliminary/initial faith requires some knowledge has raised controversies about the valuation of knowledge above faith, but there is no doubt that the blind and obligatory faith is rejected. Among the various Buddhist schools, Shin Buddhism (Amida Buddha/Pure Land) with a total reliance on Other-power or Amida, and Zen Buddhism in which confidence in Self-power leads to the realization of one’s own true mind, as two models of faith, Shinjin and Chushin, are suggested. In the present study, after analyzing the conception of faith in Buddhist texts, the two models were compared with the Christian faith. Also, the closest words to Saddha in the Pāli Canon, especially Bhakti, have been discussed. William Sessions enumerates six models of faith arguing about some of their features that Shinjin exemplifies or permits and other features that Shinjin excludes. He also discusses the differences and the structural similarities between the Buddhist faith and the Christian faith. In this regard, Shinjin and Choshin differ from the Christian faith; for example, Shinjin can be considered faith, but the Other-power, as its ‘object’ of faith, is Amida’s not God’s (or Christ’s); and Choshin is not a personal relation, hence, there is no ‘object’ of faith and no external agent-cause of faith. In fact, Choshin is not dependent on the trust of another but is self- relience. However, Buddhist transformation and Christian conversion in terms of achieving one’s deepest-original self, the necessity of faith for the supreme goal of enlightenment in Buddhism and of salvation in Christianity, the Nembutsu (call/think on Amida) and Christian prayer, are similar in many respects. Also, both Choshin experience and Christian-faith experience are essentially supernatural with a deep and lasting authority as regards their transcending causality.