بررسی لایههای ترکیبی و بلاغی از مؤلفههای ساختاری آثار ادبی، راهی برای پیبردن به لایههای درونی اندیشۀ خالق اثر است که نقش بسزایی در انتقال مفاهیم دارد و به سخن، تعالی میبخشد. ادعیه و مناجات ائمه(ع)، سرشار از آموزههای بلند عرفانی و معنویاند که از عمق جانشان سرچشمه گرفته و روح حاکم بر آنها احساس عجز و ناتوانی و خواهش و التماس از معبود است. یکی از این آثار پرمایه، مناجات منظوم امام علی(ع) است. این مناجات دربردارندۀ حقایق و معارفی است که بیانکنندۀ توحید و توجه انسانها به ساحت مقدس ربوبی است.
هدف پژوهش حاضر، تحلیل و ارزیابی عوامل ساختاری و سبکی مناجات منظوم امام علی(ع) است تا از این رهگذر، میزان تأثیرگذاری مؤلفههای سبکی در انتقال مفاهیم آن به مخاطب تبیین شود. بر اساس این، با تکیه بر روش توصیفیتحلیلی، شناسههای سبکی مناجات در لایههای ترکیبی و بلاغی چون تقدیم و تأخیر، استفهام، ندا، تکرار، تضاد و ... بررسی شدهاند. یافتهها نشان میدهند ذوق سلیم در انتخاب واژگان متضاد و همنشینی آنها در محور مرکزی کلام، تکرار اصوات و واژگان و ... در تضرع حضرت به درگاه ربوبی و طلب رحمت و عطوفت باریتعالی مؤثر است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Stylistics of the Combined and Rhetorical Layers of Imam Ali’s (AS) Poetic Prayers
Examining the synthetic and rhetorical layers of literary works is a way to understand the inner layers of the creator’s thought, which plays an important role in conveying concepts and gives excellence to speech. The prayers and supplications of the Imams (AS) are all full of high mystical and spiritual teachings that have originated from the depths of their souls and the spirit that governs them. One of these rich works is the poetic prayers of Imam Ali (AS) which contain truths and teachings that express the monotheism and attention of human beings to the holy realm of God. Imam Ali (AS) in describing his supplication to God and the holy essence of God has expressed these prayers in the form of poetry. The balance and discipline of the emotional words in the prayers with the balance and discipline in the form of poetry have made this artwork more influential and effective.
The present study, which is based on a descriptive-analytical method, intends to explain the stylistic components of poetic chants attributed to Imam Ali (AS) in combined and rhetorical layers. Answering the following questions forms the main basis of the present study: What are the stylistic features in the combined and rhetorical layers of these prayers? To what extent have the widely used elements of the combined and rhetorical layers of the chant been effective in conveying its content to the audience? Accordingly, the study uses literary and rhetorical tools and techniques related to the literature of discourse in order to explain the rhetorical and linguistic values of this work to prove its beauty and its rich meaning.
The combined structure of prayers and the accompaniment of words play an important role in creating a space appropriate to the concepts and conveying meanings to the audience. In these prayers, 42% of Jaar and Majrūr (prepositional phrases) are at the beginning of the sentences. One of the reasons is the importance of the word and the prominence of the first component as well as the emotional attitude of Imam Ali (AS) towards the addressee who is Almighty God. The repeated use of the present tense also shows the speaker’s direct connection to reality. In these prayers, the frequency of using compositional sentences is more than imperative and conditional sentences, because the soul of all prayers is request and supplication. What is also taken from the meanings of declarative sentences is the expression of weakness and humility before God. In the poetic prayers of Imam Ali (AS), the method of enjoining good and forbidding wrong has been used 11 times. The questioning method has been used 5 times, which is associated with a kind of state of inner anxiety. The exclamation is also the key to starting most of the verses in the prayers, as out of the total 30 verses of these prayers, the exclamation phrases are mentioned 29 times.
But in the rhetorical layer, one of the cases of imagery that Imam Ali (AS) has used in these prayers to induce his concepts is simile, mainly the additional type of simile. The imagery of Imam Ali (AS) in these prayers is based on the metaphor of Makni. Another stylistic characteristic of Imam Ali's (AS) prayers is the repetition of letters, among which the repetition of the inflection letter ‘Waw’ is more prominent and has been used 40 times in total throughout the prayers. The use of the paradox is also notable, which is often a behavioral conflict in which contrasting behaviors are opposed to each other. This is reflected in actions and attributes. The allusion also has a lower frequency in these prayers, but the phrase “The Day when neither wealth nor children will avail” refers to one of the Quran verses “The Day when neither wealth nor sons shall benefit” (Al-Shuara, 88), is a manifestation of this rhetorical device.
In addition, the findings of the present study show that common sense has been effective in choosing the opposite words and their companionship in the center of the word, repeating sounds and words, etc. in the prayers of Imam Ali (AS) to God and seeking mercy and compassion. The present tense has a higher frequency than the other tenses, which indicates the poet’s lively mood.