میرچا الیاده، در جایگاه پدیدارشناس و اسطورهپژوه دینی، با تأکید بر تأویل دینی - تاریخی، هرمنوتیک را بهترین شیوه برای کشف معانی و تأویل پیامهای پنهان اساطیر، نمادها و آیینها میداند. یکی از وجوه بررسیشدۀ او در پیوند با آیین شمنها، جنبۀ عرفانی آن است. در این پژوهش تلاش شده است باتوجّه به دیدگاههای تکثّرگرایانۀ میرچا الیاده در اسطورهشناسی، پدیدارشناسی دینی، مطالعۀ دینی مبتنی بر هرمنوتیک، باور به دین بهمثابة تجربة امر قدسی، زمان و مکان قدسی واسطوره بهمنزلۀ روایتکنندة تاریخ قدسی، با نگاهی تطبیقی، به بررسی عرفانیّات تمهیداتعینالقضات همدانی بپردازد و ازاینرو، نگرشهای الیاده، صرفاً بهمثابة رهیافتی در تحلیل نگرههای عرفانی عینالقضات استفاده میشود. تمهیداتعینالقضات همدانی ازجمله متون ارزشمند عرفانی است که در آن، هدف غایی، رسیدن به مرتبة انسان مذهبی/ کامل و دستیافتن به زمان و امر قدسی است که در قالب کرامت رخ مینماید. درحقیقت انسان در ازل صاحب زمان قدسی بوده است؛ امّا در فرایند دنیوی، این مفهوم را از دست داده و به انسان تاریخی تبدیل شده است. نگارندگان با کاربرد چارچوب فکری الیاده در شواهد مستخرج از کتاب تمهیدات، بر این باورند که ﺑﺴﻴﺎری از اﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪﻫﺎی اﺳﻄﻮرهای، رﻳﺸﻪ در اﻋﺼﺎری ﺑﺴﻴﺎر دور و ﻋﺎداﺗﻲ ﺑﺲ ﻛﻬﻦ دارﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ در ﮔﺬر ﻫﺰارهﻫﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺷﻜﻞداده و ﻛﺎرﻛﺮدی دگرﮔﻮنه ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪاﻧﺪ؛ اﻣّﺎ ﻫﻨﻮز ﻣﻮﺟﻮدﻳّﺖ ﺧﻮد را ﺣﻔﻆ ﻛﺮدهاند و ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟّﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻘﺪّس و ﺿﺮورتﺷﺎن، ﺗﻜﺮار میشوند. در این اثر، علاوه بر شرح چگونگی آفرینش جهان هستی و انسان و نیز چرایی آفرینش و اهداف آن، روایتهای ناب و تجربههای عرفانی فراوانی آمده است. دراین مقاله کوشیده میشود به تحلیل تمهیدات عینالقضات همدانی از دریچة پدیدارشناسی دینی و هرمنوتیک و با نگاهی تطبیقی در حوزههای عرفان، فلسفه و دینپژوهی پرداخته شود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Comparative Recognition for religious phenomenology and hermeneutics of Mircea Eliadeh in the mysticism of Tamhidat-e of Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani
Mircea Eliadeh, in the role of a phenomenologist and mythologist of religious scholars, emphasizes on the religious-historical interpretation of hermeneutics as the best way to discover the meanings and interpretation of hidden messages of mythology, symbols and rituals, and one of its aspects examined. With the shamanism, it is a mystical aspect. This research seeks to study the Tamhidat-e of Ayn al-Qudat Hamadani provisions in view of the pluralistic views of Mircea Eliade in mythology, religious phenomenology, and hermeneutical religious studies. The mentioned work is one of the most valuable mystical texts in which the ultimate goal is to reach the level of complete religious and complete humanity and to attain the holy time which is in the form of dignity; in fact, man has been holy from the beginning of the time, But it has lost its growth in the world and it is considered a historical person. By adopting the intellectual framework of Eliade, based on the evidence in the Tamhidat, the authors of the paper try to obtain the result that many mythological thoughts are rooted in many years and very old habits that have evolved over the years of the year Data and other functions have been found, but still retain their existence and are repeated with respect to their sacredness and necessity. In this work, in addition to the description of how the creation of the universe and man, as well as the cause of its creation and its purposes, there are abundant narratives and mystical experiences.
Mircea Eliadeh, as the interpreter of religious symbols, believed that religion refers to the experience of the sacred one, and the phenomenal religion uses historical documents to express the holy manifestation and the existential position and religious meanings presented in these phenomena. He believes that the myth is based on ontology, and it speaks only of facts and things that have actually happened and are fully manifested. According to Eliadeh, the truth is the Holy One, which is, in fact, really true; hence, the analysis based on the distinction between holy and unholy is the focus of his work.
Mystical texts have received a great deal of mythological beliefs. Tamhidat is also full of cultural and religious information of the writer's time and can be reviewed and reviewed by the rules and principles of the science of religious mythology. In this research, in view of the necessity of knowing more scientifically how the reflection of mythological beliefs in the culture and the way of thinking and life of the people, especially the circle considered among Sufis and Gnostics, has been abandoned unconsciously by the abandonment of mythological rituals and thoughts. This text, which is one of the most important texts of Sufism, is examined according to the views of religious mythology, Mircea Eliadeh and his theoretical frameworks in his works.
The study of the part of the phenomenology of religion, the views and views of Mircea Eliadeh, and the study of the quality and the nature of the relationship between mystical texts and religious mythological issues are urgently needed. One of the manifestations of mythology can be sought in its relation to religion and religious elements, and the topic that has been considered in most of the views of mythologists is the functions of myth. How the context is based on what the myth is shaped is more related to its origin, but along with this approach, awareness of the functions of myth is also considered. In this context, the link between myth and religion and the religious functions of the myth emerges as a subset of religious mythology.
Mircea Eliadeh, with his research on myths and the symbolism of them, has been instrumental in explaining and illustrating the symbols in the myth. In his studies, he first emphasizes the sacredness of myths among the tribes, and in defining what this scholar presents to the history of religions of myth, the myth is "a manifestation of all and all sincerity".For experimental and rational minds, a natural situation or process, in the magical-religious experience, is manifested as the manifestation of power or manifestation of the sanctity, and nature, exclusively by virtue of this manifestation of power and manifestations of holiness are a magical-religious theme, and thus are taken into account in religious phenomenology and religious history.The present study sought to address the multidimensional views of Mircea Eliadeh in mythology, religious phenomenology, and religious studies based on hermeneutics, which speaks in conjunction with the correlated points of religion and myth, and the mythical features, the symbolic of religions discusses the comparative study of the mystical text of the Provisions of the Imperialism of Hamedani.