بحث «خدا» و «وجود» در فلسفۀ مدرسی بههم گره میخورند. در متافیزیک سوآرز، «وجود» معانی مختلف و تقسیمات متفاوتی دارد و بررسی جایگاه «وجود» در خداشناسی سوآرز به بررسی معانی وجود بهعنوان موضوع متافیزیک و تقسیمات وجود در خداشناسی نیاز دارد. پرسش ما این است که وجود مدنظر در موضوع متافیزیک سوآرز، چه نسبتی با وجود در بحث خداشناسی او دارد. آیا وجود در متافیزیک (جلد نخست مباحثات) با وجود خدا (بخش دوم مباحثات) نسبتی دارد. در این نوشتار، نسبت وجود در متافیزیک و خداشناسی سوآرز با دو رویکرد فلسفی و کلامی بررسی میشود. ازنظر فلسفی، خدا یکی از مصادیق اتم وجود در متافیزیک است و ازنظر کلامی، خدا «وجود» مطرحشده در جمله سفر خروج (۱۴: ۳) است. این مقاله در دو بخش بررسی شده است: در بخش نخست، بحث عام متافیزیکی دربارۀ وجود و در بخش دوم، وجود خداوند و نسبت وجود با خداوند بررسی شدهاند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Status of Existence in Theology of Francisco Suarez
The discussion of "God" and "being," in Scholastic philosophy are tied. In metaphysics of Suarez, “being” has different meanings and divisions. And the study of the status of "being" in the theology of Suarez requires an examination of the meanings of being as a subject of metaphysics and the divisions of being in theology. Our question is being that is a subject of metaphysics of Suarez, what has relation to being of his Theology? Is there a relation between being in metaphysics (first volume of Disputations) with God (volume II)?
For Suarez the adequate object of metaphysics is being insofar as it is real being;" it deals with not only God and Aristotelian "Separate Substances") which are of themselves immaterial but also with everything else inasmuch as it falls under concepts like being, unity, truth, and goodness, but are common to these and to other things as well.
Suarez in second disputation in part of forth, expresses of meaning of being and distinct being in “participle of being” and “nominal being”.
What is mean of being? Being, is sometimes taken as a participle of the word ‘am’ and as such it signiﬁes the act of being as exercised and is the same as existing actually. It signiﬁes existence, for if someone says that Adam is, it signiﬁes that he exists.
But noun ‘being’ signiﬁes the essence of the thing and is divided into ten genera. Nominal being signifies real essence. Essence (essentia) is being (esse) and it is the source of the acts and attributes that are attributed to something. Real essence is what is defined and the first belongs to the mind, because the first thing belongs to that object.
The discussion of the existence of God in the second volume of the twenty- eight twenty-nine disputations is presented in both philosophical and theological terms. In the philosophical discussion, there are six divisions of Being that are: 1. Division of Being into into Infinite and Finite, 2. Division of Being into Being by Itself and Being from Another. 3. The Division of Being into Necessary and Contingent, 4. The Division of Being into Being by Essence and Being by Participation, 5. A Division of Being into Uncreated and Created, 6. A Division of Being into Pure Act and Potential Being.
If we want to find derivation between two meanings in metaphysics (participle and nominal). The derivation is the real being. In fact, the "being of participle" does not express everything that is real, hence the "nominal existence" also needs real being. To the collection of the being of participle that is real, and the being of a nominal term that expresses the potential being, together with the real being and the subject of metaphysics. And what is also the derivation of the divisions in the second part of the article is also "real being”; Because in these divisions, one side is God, and the other is the creatures’ contingent. In fact, you can say to Suarez The subject of metaphysics is "real being," but its use in metaphysics, including God.
The "real being" has been studied in relation to God with three approaches (metaphysical, theological, mystical). According to which the four ratios of being with God are given, two of which are metaphysical, one is mystical and the other is theological.1. In the first metaphysical approach, God is "self-being" or (ipsum esse) against the concrete being.2. In the mystical approach, God is " above being (supra ens) " in relation to the use of being in particular to the creatures, which are the concrete constituents. 3. In the second metaphysical approach, God is a special being, in the sense of the most complete and infallible being, in relation to the being of a general and abstract being that is common to all creatures and all beings; 4. In the theological sense of the being of the Bible and Exodus, which corresponds to the third most perfect and perfect being.
Therefore, in the first metaphysical approach of God, "self-being" lies in the contrary of a particular being. And in another metaphysical approach, God is the "most specific being" that stands in the contrary of an abstract being. In the mystical approach, Following the Platonists, God is "Over being. “in the theological approach God is the "most specific being" that is the same of God in Exodus (3: 14) “I am who am”. The first metaphysical approach relates to a mystical approach and the second metaphysical approach with the theological approach is one. In fact, Suarez is a Christian philosopher who both philosophy and theology that are not ignored.