شناخت هدف و خواستۀ نهایی در زندگی اهمیت فراوانی در معنا و سبک زندگی دارد. برای شناخت بهترین هدف نهایی برای زندگی از استدلالهای عقلی، وحی و شهود استفاده میشود. استدلال عقلی منهای شهود برای رسیدن به کمال و ادراک حقایق کافی نیست؛ اما شهود مخالف با برهان قطعی، نامعتبر است. بنابراین با روش کتابخانهای به شکل توصیفیتحلیلی، گزارههای حاصل از عقل و شهود دربارۀ هدف زندگی در حکمت متعالیه جمعآوری شد. در این مقاله نتیجه گرفته شد جهان غایتمند بوده و خدای تعالی، هم مبدء المبادی و هم غایتالغایات است. بهترین هدف زندگی عبارتست از شناخت گسترده و عمیق خدای تعالی (خلیفهاللهی) که باید آن را خواستۀ نهایی دانست. همچنین روشن شد عقل و شهود چگونه در این باب با یکدیگر هماهنگاند؛ زیرا هماهنگی به مؤلفههای گوناگونی تجزیه شده و مصادیق این مؤلفهها در دادههای بهدستآمده از عقل و شهود به دست آمده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
A Study of the Application of Reason and Intuition and Their Harmony in the Issue of Ultimate Goal of Life from the Point of View of Transcendent Theosophy
It is needless to say that the lack of spirituality and peace, cultural and moral decline of human values are among key global challenges and unfortunately we are also encountered with these problems. Finding the best goal for life is one of the pillars of a desirable culture and is of paramount importance in lifestyle and life purpose. After knowing the life purpose, we must provide an exact and long term plan in order to come up with suitable strategies in line with the purpose at issue.
To know the best ultimate purpose one can make use of rational arguments, revelation and intuition; Mull Sadra has used diverse (rational, traditional and intuitional) methods in his philosophical system. He believes that man in view of his mode of creation and free will have the potentiality to be a mirror that reflects the Divine Names and Attributes and becomes God's vicegerent on earth (Sadra, 1999, vol. 1: 2).
In the current article, we have made use of rational arguments and intuitive findings (primordial introspection and mystical intuition) and by means of library based method in descriptive and analytic form collected the propositions resulted from reason and intuition about life goal in Transcendent Theosophy in order to reach the following conclusions:
As to the application of reason and intuition in Transcendent Theosophy, one can say that they are both necessary but none of them is sufficient alone (Transcendent Theosophy is an interdisciplinary study). Mystical intuition must be formulated in the form of arguments because substantial proof is the basis and measure of mystical intuitions. Some teachings are trans-rational and are known to be irrational and undependable visions; but intuition through reason is much more dependable and certain though prophetic and revealed intuition is the most dependable way for knowledge acquisition as compared to other visions of mystical visions.
From the point of view of rational principles and arguments, the telos of world and man is God and we must choose the knowledge of God as our own purpose in life. But reason alone is not sufficient for reaching perfection and it needs to be associated with vision and intuition in order to reach certain truths. By referring to primordial consciousness and approaches and realizing the initial primordial nature, one can reinforce his internal enthusiasm and love and via a deep and extensive intuition conceive the existence of God so that the Divine Names and Attributes to become reflected in us and we reach real pleasure and peace. Then, realization of primordial potencies and the perfection of intuition must be chosen as the ultimate goal of life. According to Sadra, intuition is compatible with rational proof and they are not opposing. There is also harmony in the field of their application. Having analyzed the data and studied the harmony elements (including coherence, convergence, enlightenment, leading to end, leading to purpose, argumentization and combined association), we prove the way that reason and intuition are used in line with each other as regards the problem of ultimate purpose of life. Thus, it became clear that the epistemic system in Transcendent Theosophy enjoys higher degree of coherence which can be found in no other epistemic system.