عنوان مقاله [English]
The binary opposition is a term to which structuralists have paid much attention. It means that there is a contradiction among many elements and phenomena. The human mind resorts to the phenomena by means of antithetical signs. The binary oppositioncan be effective in recognizing mystical and symbolic phenomena and myths. Artworks can be represented by signs and symbols and what is related to culture. In the present study, the artworks of ancient Lurestan, which are related to the Iron Age, are examined with a descriptive-analytical method from the perspective of binary opposition. The authors divided the images of artworks into small units and examined the relationships between them. Zurvanism is based on dualism. Zurvan is one of the great gods of Lurestan and one of the gods of the Zoroastrian faith. Zurvan is both male and female at the same time which might refer to anima and animus. Zurvan procreated both Ahuramazda and Ahriman. Zurvan's face looks like a man, but her hair is like a woman in a bronze headpin. Ahuramazda and his forces are symbolically positioned at the right side of Zurvan, but the Devil and his forces are at his (Zurvan's) left side. Ahura's images are young, in the forms of flower and fox, but the images of Demon (the alternative name for the devil) are old, or rather too young (i.e. infants), at the same time, and in the form of a serpent. Most of such conflicts have been used for religious purposes.
Understanding the contrasts in a structure helps to understand its general meaning. Lévi Strauss believes that our ancestors have used binary opposition to better understand the world. Strauss first divides myths into smaller units , which he calls ‘myth im’. Then, he examines the metaphorical meaning of myth ims.
Zurvan is the god of time who has an eternal and dual nature. He has twin brothers, Ormazd and Ahriman, for the followers of the Zurvanism religion. Zurvan is the name of a minor god in Avesta. However, in the Pahlavi texts, which represent the tradition of the Sassanid period, he has a prominent character. He is eternal like Ormazd and Ahriman in some texts because the god of time has no beginning of time and he is the beginning of everything himself. Zurvanism religion is a common form of Zoroastrianism during the Sassanid era.
In the present study, two images attributed to ancient Lurestan were examined. In the first image, Zurvan has been depicted in the form of a man, with a majestic face, along with a beard on his upper body and the face of a beautiful woman on his chest. This image shows the confrontation between male and female types. To the right of Zurvan can be seen God bless (Ahuramazda), four standing young men, three sitting young men, and a flower. To the left of Zurvan are the Devil (Ahriman), four standing old men, and three infants on the ground. Ahuramazda’s forces can be Amshaspandan, who is seven persons, and the Devil’s forces can be Diwan, who is also seven persons; therefore, the forces of Ahuramazda and Ahriman are in opposition to each other.
The second image is a headpin obtained from Sorkhdome Lori of Koohdasht. Zurvan's face has both the facial features of a man and a woman at the same time. Zurvan's thick eyebrows and rough face are signs of masculinity and his crown-like hairs refer to his femininity. On the right side of Zurvan, there is a flower that looks like a lotus or sunflower, which is a symbol of Ahuramazda. An animal has been engraved in this part of the image which looks like a fox or a jackal. This animal has worn clothes and a branch in its hand. In other countries, the symbols of the fox are interesting and associated with positive gods. In other countries, the symbols of the fox are and associated with positive gods. On the left side of Zurvan, the Devil is depicted as a hunchbacked infant. There is also a cobra snake which can be from the forces of the Devil on this side of Zurvan. This snake has hands and legs. It seems that it has had sacredness before the religion of Zoroaster and the Abrahamic religions. Snake is included as one of the Devil's creatures in Bundahishn’s book. The clothes are all over the top and cover them up to the toes. Only Zurvan has a belt on his waist, which is on his right side to the left, and this can be a sign of Ahuramazda's superiority over the Devil. The Zurvan in the middle of the page is the unifier of the world of light and darkness or the world of good and evil. The shape of the plate is a circle. As Jung puts it, the circle has been a symbol of both the male and female sexes at the same time. The height of Zurvan is so tall that covers the entire screen. It seems that his head is in the sky and his feet are on the earth. On this basis, Zurvan alone contains the sky and earth. The hairs of Zurvan are like a mountain. The mountain is also a symbol of the goddesses.