در حکمت اسلامی، نفس همواره اساس و شالودۀ ساختار وجودی انسان معرفی شده و در مقابل، به بدن و نقش آن در شناخت هویت انسان، کمتر توجه شده است. این در حالی است که شناخت نفس در بیشتر زوایای معرفتشناختی آن، متکی بر شناخت بدن و جایگاه آن است و این امر با دقت نظر در مباحث علمالنفس آشکار خواهد شد. در نوشتار پیش رو، چند مبحث از نفسشناسی ملاصدرا حول محور پنج پرسش بررسی شدهاند: 1. ملاصدرا چگونه از بدن و ویژگیهای جسمانی در ابطال تناسخ بهره میجوید؟ 2. ویژگیهای بدنی در حکمت متعالیه چگونه ملاصدرا را قادر به دفاع از اتحاد نفس و بدن کرده است؟ 3. صدرا چگونه با کمک بدن تعدد قوای نفس را به اثبات میرساند؟ 4. بدن در حکمت متعالیه چه کارکردی در تبیین فرایند علم و ادراک دارد؟ 5. ملاصدرا چگونه بدن و ویژگیهای آن را در اثبات جاودانگی نفس به استخدام میگیرد؟ در پاسخ به این پرسشها، استدلالهای منتهی به مطلوب، مبتنی بر مقدماتی است که وابستگی مستقیم به شناخت بدن و ویژگیهای آن دارد؛ ازجمله این مقدمات عبارتند از: تناسب مراتب قوه و فعل نفس با درجات قوه و فعل بدن، ذومراتب بودن بدن و جایگاه آن در حرکت جوهری استکمالی نفس، تغییر، ضعف یا زوال برخی از قوای بدنی در زمانهایی خاص از حیات دنیوی، مقدمهبودن حس و ادراکات بدنی در شکلگیری ادراکات فراحسی و منزّهبودن برخی از ساحتهای وجودی انسان از عوارض مادی و بدنی. با این زاویۀ دید خاص، نقش بدن و ویژگیهای آن در تبیین و تحلیل این پنج مسئله، انکارناپذیر خواهد بود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Ontological role of body in explaining five problems of Mulla Sadra's psychology
In Islamic philosophy the soul is almost introduced as the base of existential Structure of human being and on the contrary, the body and its role is noteworthy less. Actually the knowledge of soul in most of ontological dimensions is related to knowledge of body and its place in psychological discussions. In this article we have studied five problems about soul in Mulla Sadra’s philosophy. Therefor in this paper, five issues of soul are mentioned and the role of the body is mentioned in understanding and analyzing these issues. These issues include: the rejection of metempsychosis of the soul, the proof of the union of the soul and the body, proving the plurality of the faculties of the soul, explaining the knowledge and perception of the soul, and ultimately proving the immortality of the soul.
According to the five titles mentioned above, this article seeks to answer these five questions:
1- How does Mulla Sadra benefit from the physical issues of body in rejecting metempsychosis? 2- How the Physical features in his philosophy have enabled Mulla Sadra to defend the unity of the soul and body? 3- How does Mulla Sadra prove the plurality of the body with the help of the features of body? 4- What is the body in Mulla Sadra’s Philosophy in explaining the process of knowledge and perception? 5- How does Mulla Sadra hire his body and its attributes in the proof of immortality? In response to these questions, there are reasons and arguments those are based on prefaces which are straightly depend on body and its characteristics. Some of these prefaces are: the harmony between potential and actual in soul and potential and actual in body, levels of body and its place in evolutionary substantial movement of soul, alteration, weakness or decline of some physical forces in special moments of mundane life, the importance of senses and physical perceptions in order to develop rational cognitions, being some existential levels of human free from physical feature. By this point of view, the body and its characteristics have an important ontological role.
1- The body always moves through the substantial movement from potential to actual during its lifetime and in order to the unity of the soul and body, the soul also make its potential actual with the body. Returning from action to potential is impossible, so The soul can’t be transmitted physically after actuality, which is empty of it. The body also has other features that Mulla Sadra can with the help of them, reject metempsychosis of the soul Including that: the body must always be under the control of one soul and You can never imagine a body which is empty of the soul Because the consistency of body's reality depends on soul companionship. In addition, the body can’t have two or more soul at the same time and with a self-determination anyone will find it.
2- Mulla Sadra believes that the existence is a one thing with different levels which are connected to each other and between its levels, there is no detachment. Therefor if an existence is developed on the basis of substantial movement Can within itself have the lowest levels of materiality to the highest degrees of immateriality. The human soul, after its being substantial Perfection in the immortality becomes one which is the highest level of it is intellect and the lowest level of that is material body. He also introduces the body as the emergence of the soul and its perfection. Accordingly, we can consider the body as the highest level and the soul as the lower level of the soul. In this way, the we can reject the duality of the soul and body and confirmed by the unity of the two.
3- Mulla Sadra, while believing in the union of the soul with Perceptual and provocative faculties, identifies them as various Dignities of soul and Considers the plurality of the faculties as a difference in the levels of soul. From his point of view, observing the physical faculties shows that Some physical faculties are available at the time, and at other time some are not exist. This is while some other physical faculties are available all the time. The permanent existence of some of the faculties during the life and their absence at another time, is a suitable criterion for proving plurality.
4- The formation of the faculties of the soul begins from the material body. The sensory and physical faculties are the beginning of the emergence of other faculties. Therefore, the distinction between non-physical perceptions of sensory perceptions is through taking physical properties away. The perfection of soul is initially through sensory perceptions and physical matter. The body is the origin of sensory, imaginary, and rational perceptions and The plurality and variety of perceptions relate to physical instruments. The rational perceptions also come with the help of senses and partial perceptions. Of course, this point must also be emphasized that after achieving immateriality of the soul, sensory and physical faculties plays a dominant and deterrent role in rational perceptions.
5- Mulla Sadra uses a method of taking physical properties away to prove Immortality of soul. He shows that the soul does not only have some physical states like Weakness in sleep or fatigue due to intellectual activity, but also the body is more powerful in these cases. Taking these physical characteristics away from the perceptive faculty Reveals that the soul is immaterial. This leads us to the proof of the survival of the Immortality of soul after the death of body.