عنوان مقاله [English]
The Holy Quran emphasizes the Islamic Ummah approximation. But a group among Shi'a and Sunni for various reasons disagreed with it. This article is about an anti-approximation group within Sunni. After dividing them into different groups, it explains and criticizes the causes of their opposition according to the induction in their original books. The output of the paper is that their opposition to the Islamic approximation process is unjustified and often stems from their mistaken approach and analysis of the subject of approximation.
The word “تقریب” approximation derived from the root “ق ر ب”, means closeness and connectivity, technically is a serious effort to strengthen the relations between the followers of the two main religions of Islam by understanding the differences between them and eliminating the negative consequences of these differences. In other words, approximation means the approaching and closing of the followers of the Islamic faiths in order to become acquainted with each other through the realization of empathy and religious brotherhood on the basis of common Islamic principles, or to cooperate in promoting and preserving religious unity and disregarding each other in cases of conflict. In fact, the outcome of approximation is the movement towards the unity of Islamic Ummah. So clearly, the movement of approximation does not take into account the elimination of particular religious groups and their integration into one another.
By the anti-approximation process we mean a collection of anti-proximate groups and people within the Sunni community, who explicitly or implicitly denied unity with Shi'a, believe it is impossible and opposed it. According to the type and severity of their opposition, they are divided into three categories:
Individuals and groups that express their explicit reject to the issue of the approximation of Islamic nation and, so severely tend to denigrate the approximation, even through the names of their written books and sources, they are called the opponents. The adversaries are those whose general views towards the Shi'a is such that they do not express their only explicit opposition to the approximation, though they have not explicitly and directly opposed the approximation. Since the anti-approximation movement also consists of people, which initially coincided with the current approximation, but later expressed their opposition to it via returning from their own ideas, we named them the quitters.
The reasons for the opposition to the anti-approximation movement are centered around four axes: 1. The irreducibility of the Shiite religion due to the belief in the permissibility of murdering of the opposition and not expressing it based on the belief of Taqiyah; 2- The existence of basic and inherent differences between Shi'a and Sunni, such as belief in distortion The Qur'an, and the curses of some of the Prophet Companions and respectable ones of Sunnis; 3 - lack of proper response and the contradictory of shi ia behaviors to approximation for the Shi'ism of Sunnis; and 4- the political and religious interferences in Sunni areas.
The movement has always considered historical differences as a factor in the impossibility of exposing any kind of approximation. This process, which does not have a thorough analysis of the approximation of religions and its requirements, has itself become a problem for the Islamic world by denying and rejecting any interaction with Shi'ism. The current trend calls for approximation to mean the intellectual and cultural unification of all muslims according to its beliefs, and because of the impossibility of such an act, it has not supported the approximation of the Islamic Ummah and imposed irreparable costs on Islamic societies.
Focusing on differences and lack of attention to commonalities, and in this way, believing in root divisions and discrepancies and misleading Shiites, extreme pessimism in attributing any anti-approximation measures to the Shia, unilateralism and narrative in expressing Shi'a beliefs such as disagreeing Shiites with Islam And being in line with the enemies, are among the mechanisms of justifying their opposition to the issue of approximation, which, in accordance with their prejudiced subjectivity, impose on the minds of the audience and on the world of Shi'ism. The tactical and cross-sectional look in terms of group interests and the neglect of their own anti-approximation measures, with a negative focus on Shiite beliefs, and the justification of the same issues in internal beliefs, are some main criticisms of their views. Therefore, none of the reasons in opposing the approximation of the Islamic Ummah, based on the Qur'anic verses, the traditions and the rationality of the wisdoms, is not justified.