عنوان مقاله [English]
In the area of Islamic civilization and the West, Imam Khomeini and St. Augustine are important because the thoughts and effects of both have been the source of profound developments, hence the comparison of the political ideas of these two characters is of great importance. This comparison is based on the three pillars of the "nature of politics", "the relationship between religion and politics" and "the duty of citizens", given the impact of these axes on the religious attitude of the two characters. The main purpose of this study is to compare the religious attitude of Imam Khomeini and Augustine and its effect on the thoughts of these two characters. The main question is: what influence did the religious attitude of Augustine and Imam Khomeini have on their political ideas? Based on this, the present study is a descriptive-analytic type with qualitative and comparative approach taken by the library method. Findings of the research show that different attitudes and impressions of Augustine and Imam Khomeini from religion have caused a difference in their political beliefs.
In relation to the first axis, the "nature of politics", Augustine's view of politics is a negative and pessimistic view, in which he considers politics the domination of man over man. He believed that God initially created human beings, but with the disobedience of Adam and Eve, many difficulties and problems, including politics, arose for mankind. In other words, he believed that politics was a punishment and divine punishment for mankind, which was created by the guilt of Adam and Eve. But according to Imam Khomeini, the nature of politics is considered as a desirable and guiding phenomenon. From Imam Khomeini's point of view, there is a policy of spiritual color, because politics is a way of life and has dimensions of the worldly and non-existent. Indeed, based on the spiritual attitude, Imam Khomeini considers politics to guide the society and preserve its material. Therefore, in his view, politics is not only an evil and unpleasant thing, but a sacred and spiritual matter, which is responsible for leading society to perfection.
In the second axis, "The Relationship between Religion and Politics," Augustine believed that the state and church were two separate issues. He believed in the supremacy of the church over the power of the state. In his view, the domains of the Church include the entire world and is an eternal institution, but the state is a temporary variable that will be destroyed by the divine manifestation. However, according to Imam Khomeini, there is no separation between religion and politics, and they are both complementary; politics does not need to be in line with the religious guidelines, so that it does not deviate from the right path and follow the right path. Running requires government power. Imam believed in unity and did not accept the duality of political and religious thought. According to him, religion is the same politics.
At last, this article examines the views of Augustine and Imam Khomeini on "citizen duties". In the political thought of Augustine, Christian is passive in terms of political activity. The only duty of citizens against the rulers is obedience and prayer in the king's right; it does not matter whether these rulers are just or ruthless. For Augustine, citizens do not have the right to protest or fight and uprising against the rulers, because the ruler has received his authority from God. However, Imam Khomeini portrayed citizens as one of the pillars of governance and considered participation in political activity as one of their great religious authorities and made indifference in the affairs of the state a major sin. He considers the revolution and the uprising of the people against the tyrannical rulers from the very important duties of the citizens, which, if they are disregarded, will learn the corruption of the whole earth and human societies will be degenerated.